# Descriptive statistics research papers

The number of people used in sociological research studies routinely reaches in the hundreds for just this reason. When the confidence interval for the difference between two means does not span 0, then the findings will always be statistically significant.

Most items on surveys have ordinal scale alternatives as selections that the respondents can choose from. Fortunately, the field of mathematics offers us numerous statistical tools that can aid Descriptive statistics research papers in this task.

Both of the people responding believed that cell phone usage had a negative effect on driving behavior, but can one really say that the person who responded with a 22 felt that much more negatively about the effects of cell phone usage than the person who responded with a 23?

These are also known as tests of significance and help researchers Descriptive statistics research papers if the data they obtain is a result of mere chance or if there is an actual relationship between the variables involved.

If this is starting to look like algebra, then you can appreciate that we can use more complex mathematics in analyzing this type of data and indeed we are now able as a result to apply more powerful analytical procedures.

There are, however, a variety of statistical procedures referred to as non-parametric statistics that can be used to test for the significance of differences between groups or subgroups or to assess the significance of changes that occur over time. As a result, the number of points on the graph is decreased and larger patterns can emerge.

If a regression is done, the best-fit line should be plotted and the equation of the line also provided in the body of the graph. A sample is a smaller group within the population that is studied to make inferences about the larger population.

One of the most common and helpful methods for doing this is a frequency distribution. These reflect ordered categories e. This wastes precious words economy!!

Human beings are infinitely diverse, and often two people can look at the same data or situation and arrive at two very different conclusions.

The line spanning two adjacent bars indicates that they are not significantly different based on a multiple comparisons testand because the line does not include the pH 2 mean, it indicates that the pH 2 mean is significantly different from both the pH 5.

Even within the same party, voters can be divided over a candidate, with some giving credence to one piece of information about the candidate and others valuing another piece. In order to better understand human behavior from this perspective, sociologists attempt to describe, explain, and predict the behavior of people in social contexts.

Inferential statistics are used to make inferences from data, such as drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample. For this reason, it is impossible to extrapolate from the attitudes or behavior of one individual to society at large.

It is a truism that people can look at the same situation and honestly disagree. For example, as shown in Figure 2, for the data set 2, 3, 3, 7, 9, 14, 17, the mode is 3, as there are two 3s in the distribution, but only one of each of the other numbers; the median is 7, since, when the seven numbers in the distribution are arranged numerically, 7 is the number that occurs in the middle; and the mean or arithmetic mean is 7.

There is no ordering among the categories blonde hair is not more or less than brown, various industry classifications are not "more" or "less" and averaging is not appropriate for this type of data. With interval scales we have ordered categories that are equidistant from each other. You can summarize these data as the percentage of respondents who fall into each category or as the mode, which is the term used to describe the most common category selected.

Each measure of central tendency and variability has particular strengths and weaknesses and should only be used under certain conditions. The statistics for testing for group differences or changes over time that are available for this type of data e.

Therefore, it is reasonable to aggregate the data into ranges within the span of scores e. Analyses of variance and t-tests are examples of the types of tests for group differences that are commonly used with interval scale data.

The system you use depends on how complicated it is to summarize the result.

In all cases, the p-value should be reported as well in the figure legend The asterisk may also be used with tabular results as shown below. Averages, for example, are not really appropriate here.

Research Methods Overview At its most basic, sociology is the study of humans within society. Always use the highest level of measurement that is available to you. The median can be used to indicate the center or mid-point of the distribution and the interquartile range can be used as an indication of variability in the data.

It should seem a simple step to extrapolate from our own attitudes and behavior to those of people in general. How can we make sense of all the data and interpret them in a meaningful way?

Several calculations are used to generate inferential statistics, including the t-test and Chi-square, which give information about the probability of the results actually representing the population.

Figure 1 shows a comparison between a scatter plot of raw data and a histogram with a superimposed frequency distribution.

Statistics are tools of science, not an end unto themselves. However, it would be difficult to display these results by graphing all 1, points.

Five-point scales are sufficient for showing change in most instances and we find these easier to express in writing in reports than we do some 7-point scales.

For practical purposes in the behavioral sciences, we are would generally be happy if we could get true interval level measurement and it is unlikely we will ever measure attitudes, opinions, or intentions with anywhere near this level of precision. While descriptive statistics summarize the data, inferential statistics make generalizations about a population from a sample.

You use nominal scales when the categories are exhaustive include all alternatives, even though one may be "other" and mutually exclusive none fall into more than one category.a.

Using Descriptive Statistics on column C from the Data Analysis menu, determine the best estimate for the mean and standard deviation of. Data and descriptive statistics The data used in this paper is a subset of data on multinational enterprises (MNEs) from the Community Innovation Survey. Overview.

The results of your statistical analyses help you to understand the outcome of your study, e.g., whether or not some variable has an effect, whether variables are related, whether differences among groups of observations are the same or different, etc.

Statistics are tools of science, not an end unto themselves. Students will learn to apply business research and descriptive statistics in making better business decisions.

Other topics include examination of the role of statistics in research, statistical terminology, the appropriate use of statistical techniques, and interpretation of statistical findings in business and research.

exams, term papers. Compare descriptive statistics and inferential statistics in research. Answer all the questions below: (After the data are collected, it is time to analyze the results!) Discuss one (1) of the four basic rules for understanding results in a research study as described below.

There are four basic rules to looking at data in the results. Descriptive statistics is a subset of mathematical statistics that is invaluable for summarizing, consolidating, and describing data so .

Descriptive statistics research papers
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